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You are what you eat,’ goes the saying and therefore you try to eat healthy foods.
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Diabetes Management
What is Diabetes ...........

Diabetes is a disorder characterized by hyperglycemia or elevated blood glucose (blood sugar). Our bodies function best at a certain level of sugar in the bloodstream. If the amount of sugar in our blood runs too high or too low, then we typically feel bad.  Diabetes is the name of the condition where the blood sugar level consistently runs too high. Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder. Without insulin, the amount of glucose in the bloodstream is abnormally high, causing unquenchable thirst and frequent urination. The body’s inability to store or use glucose causes hunger and weight loss. Sixteen million Americans have diabetes, yet many are not aware of it. Diabetes has potential long term complications that can affect the kidneys, eyes, heart, blood vessels and nerves.

 

Points to be Taken into Consideration While Planning the Diet
Avoid roots and tubers e.g.: potato, sweet potato, colocasia, yam, tapioca but carrot and radish can be consumed.
 Avoid sugar, glucose, jams, jaggery, honey, sweets, nuts, Horlicks, Bournvita,etc.
 Avoid fried foods.
Include salads but no salad dressing like mayonnaise.
Include plenty of green leafy vegetables.
Quantity of oil should be restricted.
Dietary exchanges should be taken into consideration.
Avoid alcohol.
Include food rich in fiber.
Avoid fruits such as mango, banana, chickoo, custard apple etc .
Have your meals at regular timings and limit your overall intake.
Home Remedies
 
Some home remedies help to regulate the blood sugar level. You can try out some of these remedies which compliment along with the diet for diabetics and regular exercises to lower blood sugar levels and protect from diabetes related damages.
 
Have
 liter of cinnamon water daily. Cinnamon contains a chemical to help utilize blood sugar naturally in your body. Add 3 table spoon of cinnamon to 1 liter of boiling water. Simmer for 20 minutes in a low flame, then strain the mixture. 
Fresh or dried bitter gourd (bitter melon) or 2 ounces of its juice every day. Bitter melon increases the insulin secreting cells in the pancreas and daily intake of juice reduces the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy.
  Wild (Black) cumin boiled in water regularly. 
Equal quantities of turmeric powder and dried gooseberry powder with honey or drink equal quantities of gooseberry juice and fresh turmeric juice in an empty stomach regularly.
Make coffee with powdered fried fenugreek and wheat, taken in equal quantities.
Garlic every day early in the morning in an empty stomach.
Tender curry leaves (fresh) twice a day.
 Crush guava leaves, a handful and 3 grams of cumin together. Boil with one glass of water and make it half.
Drink 8 glass of water in the morning and walk for one hour.
 
Types of Diabetes
 
There are two main types of diabetes.
 
Insulin-dependent diabetes – type 1 diabetes  Occurs when there is a severe lack of insulin due to the destruction of most or all of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. This type of diabetes develops rapidly, usually appearing before the age of 35, and most often between the ages of 10 and 16. Regular insulin injections are required to survive. Patients must inject themselves with insulin at regular intervals.
 
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes – type 2 diabetes  Occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin, and the insulin that is produced becomes less effective. This type of diabetes usually appears in people over the age of 40, and tends to have a more gradual onset. In most cases, glucose levels in the blood can be controlled by diet, or diet and tablets, although sometimes insulin injections may be needed. About 90 per cent of diabetics are non-insulin dependent.
 
Nutrition Needs
 
Dietary control is an integral part of management for the diabetic. The diet should always provide the essentials of good nutrition and adjustments must be made from time to time for changing metabolic needs For example during growth, pregnancy, lactation or modified activity.
 
Protein
Since diabetics in general are in negative nitrogen balance they should receive about twice as much protein as normal subjects. The proteins should be of high biological value and provide about 20 - 25 % of the calories in the diet. A diet high in protein is good for diabetics because
 
 It supplies the essential amino acids needed for tissue repair.
Protein does not raise the blood sugar during absorption, as do carbohydrates.
It does not supply as many calories as fats.
 
Carbohydrate
 
The daily intake of carbohydrate should provide about 40 % of the calories to prevent ketosis. Several studies shown that raising the carbohydrates intake does not adversely affect blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance, or insulin requirements provided that total calorie are not increased. 
 
Fats
 
After protein and carbohydrates levels have been established the fat allowance makes up the remaining calories for most diets.30 - 35 % of the calories as fat is satisfactory. Foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol should be limited.
 
Fiber
 

Foods those are rich in fiber can reduce the rate of glucose absorption, lower blood sugar rise, decrease urinary glucose excretion, slower stomach emptying and delay intestinal transit time. Fiber also contributes to satiety and consequent decreased food intake helps reduce weight. This fiber containing complex carbohydrates that are slowly digested and absorbed such as pulses, brown rice, bread, chapathi will produce less rise in blood sugar and less excretion of urinary sugar than an equivalent amount of carbohydrates taken as sugar in tea.

The fiber particularly the gums, pectin's when ingested with a diet are reported to reduce post prandial glucose levels (after food) in blood. Studies have shown that gum present in fenugreek seeds (it contains 40 % gum) is most effective in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gums. These types of dietary fiber are often recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes.

 
Calculation of Diabetic Diet
 
Let us assume that a diet is to be planned for a person who is 25 years old and 165 cm tall. According to her height her desirable weight is 60 kg. Calories required for per kg body weight is 30.
 
Calories   60 x 30 =1800kcal / day.  
Protein   20-25 % of total calories

 1800 x 20% = 360 kcal.


  360kcal /4 = 90gm / day

Carbohydrates 40% of total calories

  1800 x 40% = 720 kcal
 
  720 / 4 = 180 gm / day
 
Fat Total calories - calories from protein and carbohydrates

  1800 - (360 + 720) = 720 kcal.
   720 / 9 = 80 gm fat / day.